National Research Council of Canada. Aquatic and Crop Resource Development
National Research Council of Canada. NRC Institute for Marine Biosciences
National Research Council of Canada. Measurement Science and Standards
Biosynthetic origins of the cyclic imine toxin 13-desmethyl spirolide C were determined by supplementing cultures of the toxigenic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii with stable isotope-labeled precursors [1,2-13C2]acetate, [1-13C]acetate, [2-13CD3]acetate, and [1,2-13C2,15N]glycine and measuring the incorporation patterns by 13C NMR spectroscopy. Despite partial scrambling of the acetate labels, the results show that most carbons of the macrocycle are polyketide-derived and that glycine is incorporated as an intact unit into the cyclic imine moiety. This work represents the first conclusive evidence that such cyclic imine toxins are polyketides and provides support for biosynthetic pathways previously defined for other polyether dinoflagellate toxins.
2006 American Chemistry Society
Journal of Organic Chemistry71, no. 23 (12 October 2006): 8724–8731.