Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease affecting global wheat production, causing significant losses to yield and grain quality. The Eastern Canadian line FL62R1 was developed using a systemic breeding approach and boasts high levels of FHB resistance with good yield, desirable agronomics, and end-use quality traits. The objective of this study was to identify genetic determinants of type II resistance in a cross between FL62R1 and cv. Stettler, a Canada Western Red Spring variety rated moderately susceptible to FHB. Although neither parent displayed strong resistance to FHB spread within spikes following point inoculation (type II resistance) in greenhouses, strong type II resistance was observed in a large number of progeny, including 6% with resistance comparable to the best check line, Sumai 3. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping identified a locus from chromosome 2BL of Stettler which provides Sumai 3 level type II resistance when combined with favorable FHB resistance QTLs with minor effects from FL62R1. This study provides insight into transgressive segregation for FHB, which despite its importance is poorly understood, rare, and difficult to predict. It also begins to dissect the genetic architecture of FHB resistance in wheat derived from the systemic breeding approach.