National Research Council of Canada. Aquatic and Crop Resource Development
The effects of oxidized dietary lipid and the role of vitamin E on lipid profile, retained tocopherol levels, and lipid oxidation of juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were evaluated following a 9-week feeding trial. Four isonitrogenous experimental diets containing fresh or oxidized (peroxide value of 94 mequiv/kg) fish oil with or without added vitamin E (α-tocopherol or mixed tocopherols) were fed to juvenile cod in duplicate tanks. There was no significant (P > 0.05) influence on major lipid classes of cod liver and muscle by diet with the exception of sterols. Sterols content was increased in liver but decreased in muscle by oxidized dietary oil in the absence of vitamin E. Dietary vitamin E supplementation decreased the sterols level in cod liver but with no significant (P > 0.05) effect on their level in the muscle. Fatty acid composition varied between lipid fractions in muscle tissue and was affected by the diet. Oxidized oil significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the deposition of α-tocopherol in liver but not in muscle. γ- and δ-Tocopherols from dietary tocopherol mixtures were retained at very low levels in liver, but higher retention was observed in muscle tissue. The oxidative state of both liver and muscle, as measured by the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and headspace propanal, negatively correlated with tissue vitamin E levels. It is suggested that oxidized oil affected juvenile Atlantic cod by causing vitamin E deficiency in certain tissues and that these effects could be alleviated by supplementation of a sufficient amount of dietary vitamin E. The results also indicate that mixed tocopherols were good antioxidants for Atlantic cod, although less effective than α-tocopherol alone in many tissues with the exception of muscle, where γ- and δ-tocopherols were deposited at relatively high levels.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry55, no. 15 (21 June 2007): 6379–6386.