Brassica napus seed composition traits (fibre, protein, oil and fatty acid profiles), seed colour and yield-associated traits are regulated by a complex network of genetic factors. Although previous studies have attempted to dissect the underlying genetic basis for these traits, a more complete picture of the available quantitative trait loci (QTL) variation and any interaction between the different traits is required. In this study, QTL mapping for eleven seed composition traits, seed colour and a yield-related trait (TSW) was conducted in a spring-type canola-quality B. napus doubled haploid (DH) population from a cross between black-seeded (DH12075) and yellow-seeded (YN01-429) lines across five environments. A major QTL associated with fibre traits (acid detergent fibre, acid detergent lignin and neutral detergent fibre) and seed colour (whiteness index) was mapped on chromosome N9 across the five environments. Multi-trait analysis identified QTL which had pleiotropic effect for seed colour and other composition traits. Multi-environment analysis revealed genetic (QTL) × environment effects on most QTL. These findings provide a more detailed insight into the complex QTL networks controlling seed composition and yield-associated traits in canola-quality B. napus.