Biofilms were cultivated on polycarbonate strips in rotating annular reactors using South Saskatchewan River water during the fall of 1999 and the fall of 2001. The reactors were supplemented with carbon (glucose), nitrogen (NH₄Cl), phosphorus (KH₂PO₄), or combined nutrients (CNP), with or without hexadecane. The impact of these treatments on nitrification and on the exopolysaccharide composition of river biofilms was determined. The results showed that the biofilms had higher NH₄⁺ oxidation, NO₃⁻ production, and N₂O production activities in fall 1999 than fall 2001 when grown with CNP but had higher activities in fall 2001 than fall 1999 when grown with individual nutrients. The exopolysaccharide amounts and proportions were generally higher in fall 1999 than fall 2001, as a consequence of the higher nutrient levels in the river water in the first year of this study. The addition of P and especially CNP stimulated NH4+ oxidation by the biofilms, showing a P limitation in this river ecosystem. The presence of hexadecane negatively affected these activities and lowered the amounts of exopolysaccharides in CNP and P biofilms in fall 1999 but increased the biofilm activities and exopolysaccharide amounts in CNP biofilm in fall 2001. Antagonistic, synergistic, and independent effects between nutrients and hexadecane were also observed. This study demonstrated that the biofilm autotrophic nitrification activity in the South Saskatchewan River was limited by P, that this activity and the exopolysaccharide amounts and proportions were dependent on the nutrient concentrations in the river water, and suggested that exopolysaccharides may play a protective role for biofilm microorganisms against toxic pollutants.