A description is given of the nature of problems caused by ice for the engineer. Factors controlling the deformation behaviour and strength of ice are discussed briefly. A distinction is made between the behaviour of the relatively small volumes of competent ice that are normally used for tests and the large, inhomogeneous bodies that must be considered by the engineer. Consideration is given to the implications of this for the conduct of in situ tests and the interpretation of their results.
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering23, no. 1 (1996): 180–185.