The use of microarrays for the study of various aspects of fish physiology has seen a spectacular increase in recent years. From early studies with model species, such as zebrafish, to current studies with commercially important species, such as salmonids, catfish, carp, and flatfish, microarray technology has emerged as a key tool for understanding developmental processes as well as basic physiology. In addition, microarrays are being applied to the fields of ecotoxicology and nutrigenomics. A number of different platforms are now available, ranging from microarrays containing cDNA amplicons to oligomers of various sizes. High-density microarrays containing hundreds of thousands of distinct oligomers have been developed for zebrafish and catfish. As this exciting technology advances, so will our understanding of global gene expression in fish. Furthermore, lessons learned from this experimentally tractable group of organisms can also be applied to more advanced organisms such as humans.