The uniaxial compressive strength of iceberg ice was determined over a wide range of strain rates from 10?8 to 10+1 s?1 at -10°C. It was found that for strain rates less than 10?4 s?1, strength increased in a power-law manner with strain rate. Above 10?4 s?1, the strength was essentially constant at 4 MPa, dropping slightly between 10?3 and 10?1 s?1, before rising again to a value of about 10 MPa at 10+1 s?1. Thin sections of the ice revealed a small grain size of about 3.5 mm and elongated air bubbles with a ratio of length to width of about 10. In the practical strain-rate range of interest, the maximum failure stress observed was 4.8 MPa.
Canadian Journal of Physics81, no. 1-2 (2003): 191–200.