National Research Council of Canada. NRC Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences
National Research Council of Canada. Security and Disruptive Technologies
We show that ultrashort pulse strong field multiphoton ionization efficiently produces metastable highly charged molecules such as metastable diatomic trications I₂³⁺, Br₂³⁺, and Cl₂³⁺. The efficiency of stable trication production decreases rapidly with increasing pulse duration. Weak pre- or post-pulse irradiation also prevents efficient production or survival of trications. We propose strong-field femtosecond Raman spectroscopy to determine trication vibrational frequencies.
Physical Review Letters81, no. 11 (14 September 1998): 2217–2220.