Vaccine biomarkers are critical to many aspects of vaccine development and licensure, including bridging findings in pre-clinical studies to clinical studies, predicting potential adverse events, and predicting vaccine efficacy. Despite advances in our understanding of various biological pathways, and advances in systems analyses of the immune response, there remains much to learn about qualitative and quantitative aspects of the human host response to vaccination. To stimulate discussion and identify opportunities for collaborative ways to advance the field of vaccine biomarkers, A Next Generation Vaccine Biomarker workshop was held in Ottawa. The two day workshop, sponsored by the National Research Council Canada, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Public Health Agency of Canada, Pfizer, and Medicago, brought together stakeholders from Canadian and international industry, government and academia. The workshop was grouped in themes, covering vaccine biomarker challenges in the pre-clinical and clinical spaces, veterinary vaccines, regulatory challenges, and development of biomarkers for adjuvants and cancer vaccines. The use of case studies allowed participants to identify the needs and gaps requiring innovation. The workshop concluded with a discussion on opportunities for vaccine biomarker discovery, the Canadian context, and approaches for moving forward. This article provides a synopsis of these discussions and identifies steps forward for advancing vaccine biomarker research in Canada.