Underway replenishment is an essential component of long-term naval operations. During underway replenishment, two ships travel in close proximity at moderate forward speed. This paper examines the hydrodynamic interactions that can influence seakeeping during such operations. Presented numerical predictions include the influence of interaction effects on hydrodynamic forces for two ships in waves. A scarcity of validation material for numerical predictions prompted new towing tank experiments for two ships in waves. The experiments used semi-captive models, and the numerical code was modified to include restraining forces for specified modes. The numerical predictions and experiments show that the presence of a larger ship can significantly influence the motions of a smaller ship in close proximity.