Lactobacillus casei is a Gram positive lactic acid bacterium used in dairy fermentations and present in the normal human gut microbiota. Certain strains are recognized as probiotics with beneficial effects on human and animal health. L. casei BL23 is a potential probiotic strain endowed with anti-inflammatory properties and a model strain widely used in genetic, physiological and biochemical studies. A number of bacterial cell surface polysaccharides have been shown to play a role in the immune modulation activities observed for probiotic lactic acid bacteria. In the present work, we purified the most abundant carbohydrate polymer of L. casei BL23 cell wall, a neutral wall polysaccharide (WPS) and established its chemical structure by periodate oxidation, methylation analysis and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The WPS of L. casei BL23 was shown to contain α-Rha, α-Glc, β-GlcNAc and β-GalNAc forming a branched heptasaccharide repeating unit (variant 1) with an additional partial substitution with α-Glc (variant 2). A modified non-reducing end octasaccharide, corresponding to a terminal unit of the WPS (variant 3), was also identified and allowed to define the biological repeating unit of the WPS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the identification of a biological repeating unit based on a chemical evidence, in a cell wall polysaccharide of a Gram positive bacterial species.