National Research Council of Canada. Human Health Therapeutics
BCG vaccine; chemokine receptor CCR7; chickenpox measles mumps rubella vaccine; chitosan nanoparticle; cholera toxin; diphtheria pertussis poliomyelitis tetanus Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; diphtheria pertussis tetanus vaccine; diphtheria vaccine; DNA vaccine; gamma interferon; gold nanoparticle; Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; influenza vaccine; interleukin 12; interleukin 18; interleukin 2; ISCOM; liposome; macrogol; measles mumps rubella vaccine; measles vaccine; Pneumococcus vaccine; polyethyleneimine; polylactic acid; polymer; severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine; tumor necrosis factor alpha; vaccine; virosome; adaptive immunity; antigen presenting cell; B lymphocyte; CD4+ T lymphocyte; CD8+ T lymphocyte; cross presentation; Haemophilus infection; influenza; influenza A (H5N1); inhalation; innate immunity; measles; mucosal immunity; nanoemulsion; pertussis; pneumococcal infection; respiratory tract infection; severe acute respiratory syndrome; T lymphocyte; tuberculosis; virus like agent
Introduction: Many human pathogens cause respiratory illness by colonizing and invading the respiratory mucosal surfaces. Preventing infection at local sites via mucosally active vaccines is a promising and rational approach for vaccine development. However, stimulating mucosal immunity is often challenging. Particulate adjuvants that can specifically target mucosal immune cells offer a promising opportunity to stimulate local immunity at the nasal and/or pulmonary mucosal surfaces.Areas covered: This review analyzes the common causes of respiratory infections, the challenges in the induction of mucosal and systemic responses and current pulmonary and nasal mucosal vaccination strategies. The ability of various particulate adjuvant formulations, including lipid-based particles, polymers and other particulate systems, to be effectively utilized for mucosal vaccine delivery is discussed.Expert opinion: Induction of antibody and cell-mediated mucosal immunity that can effectively combat respiratory pathogens remains a challenge. Particulate delivery systems can be developed to target mucosal immune cells and effectively present antigen to evoke a rapid and long-term local immunity in the respiratory mucosa. In particular, particulate delivery systems offer the versatility of being formulated with multiple adjuvants and antigenic cargo, and can be tailored to effectively prime immune responses across the mucosal barrier. The opportunity for rational design of novel subunit particulate vaccines is emerging.
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery12, no. 6 (8 May 2015): 993–1008.